What is culture Shock?
Most people who live in a foreign country for some time go through an adjustment period during which “Culture Shock” is experienced. Once culture shock is understood, its effects can be minimised dramatically.
Expatriates usually experience the following phases while adjusting to their new country:
- Honeymoon phase
- Negotiation phase
- Adjustment phase
- Reverse culture shock
During the “Honeymoon Phase”, newly arrived expatriates are excited about their new surroundings and are eager to explore the new country. They are very positive about their relocation and the newness of the country.
After a few weeks in a foreign country, expatriates usually experience homesickness. Simple day-to-day tasks, such as taking transportation, shopping or attending school meetings, can become a real challenge in a different environment. This is sometimes exacerbated by language barriers. These are challenges that locals may not be able to understand, and they may be seen by expatriates as being insensitive or unsympathetic people.
Stereotypes are mostly created during the negotiation phase of an expatriation. Stereotyping may help the ego of someone suffering from severe culture shock, but it will not lead to adaptation to the new country.
Attitude - a factor to success
Attitude is a very important factor to success or failure. Frustration leads to aggressiveness and roughness towards others. Locals, in turn, behave the same way or ignore the expatriate, further increasing the stereotypes and frustration. Expatriates who overcome this step are usually successful in their expatriation, those who don’t, just leave the host country earlier than expected.
Three types of reaction
There are three main types of reactions:
Rejecters: Some expatriates find the adaptation to the new country particularly difficult. They tend to isolate themselves from the host country that they perceive as hostile, and believe that returning home is the only way for them to be in harmony with their environment again.
Adopters: Some expatriates embrace their host culture and country, whilst losing their original identity. They usually choose to stay in the host country forever.
Cosmopolitans: They see their host country and culture positively, and manage to adapt whilst keeping their original identity. They create their own blend and usually have no problem returning to their home country or relocating elsewhere.
Six to 12 months after arriving in the host country, expatriates usually begin to grow accustomed to their new home and know what to expect from their surroundings. Daily activities become routine and the customs of the host country are accepted as another way of living.
At this stage expatriates are able to communicate more freely with locals. The previously hostile country has now become a place from which expatriates can learn and enrich their lives. Once expatriates have reached this stage, the longer they remain in the host country, the more unique their experience will be.
Reverse culture shock:
Reverse Culture Shock occurs when expatriates return to their home country after a long period away. As expatriates had to previously adjust to a new environment, returning home presents a similar challenge. Being prepared for the return home goes a long way towards helping former expatriates reintegrate into their home country.